Non-Native Plant Assessments

In 2008, The Nature Conservancy in New York and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden developed a system and protocol designed to assess the invasive nature of non-native plant species. The New York State Invasive Species Council, in consultation with the Invasive Species Advisory Committee, adopted the ranking system for use statewide. In addition, results of this work have informed invasive species legislation in Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

The Nature Conservancy in New York

Brooklyn Botanic Garden

Consequences to the native species and natural ecosystems of New York are the focus of the ranking system. The ranking system is designed to be repeatable, based on the best available science, clearly explained, and fully documented. The system can be used to assess non-native plant species that are established in New York State, species that are new arrivals, as well as species that are not yet present. Additional information about the system can be found in “New York State Ranking System for Evaluating Non-Native Plants for Invasiveness.”

New York State Ranking System for Evaluating Non-Native Plants for Invasiveness

Species are assessed at a statewide level using the New York State Invasive Plant Assessment Form. Questions are organized into four broad categories:

  1. ecological impact
  2. biological characteristic and dispersal ability
  3. ecological amplitude and distribution
  4. difficulty of control

New York State Invasive Plant Assessment Form

In order to better inform local efforts, species can be further assessed using the Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management (PRISM) Invasive Plant Ranking Form.

PRISM Invasive Plant Ranking Form

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden plans to assess a total of 180 species in 2008-2009. Species assessments are reviewed, edited, and approved by a committee of stakeholders designated as the Scientific Review Committee. Voting members of the committee include scientists, nursery professionals, Cornell Cooperative Extension and land managers at the County, State and Federal levels. A supplemental review is conducted by qualified specialists throughout the State prior to submission to the Advisory Committee and Council for final approval. As assessment forms are completed and approved, they will be posted on this website.

Scientific Review Committee

New York Invasive Plant Ranks

The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) has published draft invasive species regulations for public comment. The associated documents are available on the Department’s Lands and Forests Emergency, Proposed & Recently Adopted Regulations.

Lands and Forests Emergency, Proposed & Recently Adopted Regulations

Scientific Name Common NameEcological Rank Score NYS Profile Map

Acer ginnala

Amur MapleM 66.22 NYS PDF

Acer palmatum Thunb.

Japanese MapleM 50 NYS PDF

Acer platanoides

Norway MapleVH 82 NYS PDF

Acer pseudoplatanus

Sycamore MapleH 71.11 NYS PDF

Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (syn. Achyranthes bidentata var. japonica Miq.)

Japanese Chaff FlowerH 71.08 NYS PDF

Aegopodium podagraria

Bishop’s GoutweedM 63.75 NYS PDF

Agrostis gigantea Roth (Agrostis alba auct. non L.; Agrostis gigantea Roth var. dispar (Michx.) Philipson; Agrostis nigra With.; Agrostis stolonifera L. ssp. gigantea (Roth) Schuebl. & Martens; Agrostis stolonifera L. var. major (Gaudin) Farw.)

Redtop, Black BentgrassM 67.5 NYS PDF

Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle

Tree of HeavenM 68 NYS PDF

Akebia quinata

Chocolate VineM 52.38 NYS PDF

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Silktree, MimosaL 40 NYS PDF

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic MustardVH 84 NYS PDF

Alnus glutinosa

European Alder, Black AlderM 64.44 NYS PDF

Amelopsis brevipedunculata

Porcelain BerryH 71.26 NYS PDF

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

Wild ChervilH 78.75 NYS PDF

Aralia elata

Japanese Angelica TreeVH 80.46 NYS PDF

Artemesia vulgaris L.

Common Wormwood, MugwortH 79.31 NYS PDF

Arthraxon hispidus

Small CarpgrassH 75.68 NYS PDF

Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. (including ssp. giantea and ssp. tecta (Walter) McClure [=A. tecta (Walter) Muhl.])

Bamboo, Canebreak, Giant CaneNA 59.74 NYS PDF

Berberis thunbergii (incl. B. ottowensis)

Japanese BarberryVH 91 NYS PDF

Berberis vulgaris

Common BarberryM 68.75 NYS PDF

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. ssp. sylvaticum

Slender FalsebromeVH 86.6 NYS PDF

Bromus tectorum L.

Cheat Grass, Downy BromeM 50 NYS PDF

Buddleja davidii Franch.

Orange-Eye Butterfly BushL 45.45 NYS PDF

Butomus umbellatus L.

Flowering-RushM 63.75 NYS PDF

Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, Ann

Carolina FanwortH 72.34 NYS PDF

Callitriche stagnalis Scop.

Pond Water-StarwortL 48.75 NYS PDF

Caragana arborescens Lam.

Siberian PeashrubU 0 NYS PDF

Cardamine impatiens L.

Narrowleaf BittercressH 76.32 NYS PDF

Carex kobomugi/C. macrocephala

Japanese Sedge/Largehead SedgeM 68.6 NYS PDF

Caulerpa taxifolia

Killer AlgaNA 0 NYS PDF

Celastrus orbiculatus

Oriental BittersweetVH 86.67 NYS PDF

Centaurea jacea s.l. (including C. nigra, C. nigrescens, C. xmoncktonii)

Black Knapweed, Black Star-Thistle, Brown Knapweed, Brown Ray Knapweed, Brown Star-Thistle, Lesser Knapweed, Meadow Knapweed, Protean Knapweed, Short-Fringed Knapweed, Short-Fringed Star-Thistle, Tyrol Knapweed, Vochin KnapweedM 62.34 NYS PDF

Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos s.l. (including C. biebersteinii, C. diffusa, C. maculosa misapplied, C. xpsammogena)

Spotted Knapweed, Spotted Star-ThistleH 78.89 NYS PDF

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (C. setosum, C. incanum, Carduus arvensis, Serratula arvensis & all varieties of C. arvense)

Creeping Thistle, Californian Thistle, Canada Thistle, Field ThistleH 71 NYS PDF

Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop (Carduus palustris)

Marsh Thistle, European Swamp ThistleM 67.9 NYS PDF

Clematis terniflora

Japanese Virgin’s-BowerH 72.6 NYS PDF

Coronilla varia (Securigera varia)

CrownvetchM 62.07 NYS PDF

Cynanchum louiseae

Black Swallow-WortVH 89.69 NYS PDF

Cynanchum rossicum

European Swallow-WortVH 87.63 NYS PDF

Cyperus difformis L.

Variable FlatsedgeM 51.95 NYS PDF

Datura stramonium L.

Jimsonweed, Common Thorn Apple, Jamestown Weed, Purple Thorn AppleM 50 NYS PDF

Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Grecian FoxgloveL 36.78 NYS PDF

Digitalis purpurea L

Purple FoxgloveM 53.33 NYS PDF

Dioscorea polystachya (D. oppositifolia L. misapplied)

Chinese Yam, Cinnamon VineH 77.5 NYS PDF

Dipsacus laciniatus L.

Cut-Leaf TeaselH 75.56 NYS PDF

Egeria densa Planchon

Brazilian WaterweedH 74.71 NYS PDF

Eichhornia crassipes

Common Water-HyacinthNA 0 NYS PDF

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Russian OliveM 68 NYS PDF

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn OliveVH 94 NYS PDF

Eleutherococcus pentaphyllus (Siebold & Zucc.) Nakai (Synonyms: Eleutherococcus seiboldianus (Makino) Koidzumi;
Acanthopanax sieboldianus Makino)

Five-Leaved AraliaNA 0 NYS PDF

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Great Hairy Willow-Herb, Codlins & CreamM 62.5 NYS PDF

Eragrostis curvula

Weeping LovegrassM 57.14 NYS PDF

Euonymus alatus

Winged Burning Bush, Winged EuonymusVH 81.25 NYS PDF

Euonymus europaeus L.

European SpindletreeM 60 NYS PDF

Euonymus fortunei

Winter CreeperH 77.78 NYS PDF

Euphorbia cyparissias

Cypress SpurgeH 75.32 NYS PDF

Euphorbia esula

Leafy SpurgeH 75.9 NYS PDF

Euphorbia lathyris

Caper Spurge, MoleplantM 56.98 NYS PDF

Fallopia baldschuanica

Bukhara Fleeceflower, China Fleece Vine, Silver Lace VineM 50.6 NYS PDF

Fallopia japonica (Hout.) Dcne. var. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. xbohemica (Polygonum cuspidatum, P. sachalinense, P. xboehmicum)

Japanese Knotweed, Giant KnotweedVH 97.94 NYS PDF

Festuca filiformis Pourret

Hair FescueM 60.27 NYS PDF

Frangula alnus

Glossy Buckthorn, Smooth BuckthornH 72.73 NYS PDF

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.

Slender CottonweedM 53.25 NYS PDF

Galega officinalis

Professor-Weed, Common Milkpea, Goat’s-RueM 59.72 NYS PDF

Galium odoratum L. Scop. (Asperula odorata L.)

Sweet BedstrawL 47.78 NYS PDF

Glaucium flavum Crantz

Yellow HornpoppyM 65.75 NYS PDF

Glossostigma cleistanthum (previously reported as G. diandrum)

MudmatsL 34.88 NYS PDF

Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holb.

Tall Glyceria, English Watergrass, Reed MannagrassH 79.52 NYS PDF

Hedera helix

English IvyM 66 NYS PDF

Hemerocallis fulva (L.)

Orange DaylilyL 46.25 NYS PDF

Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Giant HogweedH 72 NYS PDF

Hesperis matronalis

Dame’s RocketM 56.98 NYS PDF

Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.

Leporinum Barley; Hare BarleyNA 0 NYS PDF

Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese HopsH 74.03 NYS PDF

Hydrilla verticillata

WaterthymeVH 91.4 NYS PDF

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.

FrogbitVH 85.57 NYS PDF

Hypericum perforatum L.

Common St. John’s-WortL 46.75 NYS PDF

Ilex crenata Thunb.

Japanese HollyL 46.67 NYS PDF

Impatiens glandulifera

Ornamental JewelweedM 66.67 NYS PDF

Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv. (all vars. except koenigii)

Cogongrass, Cogon Satin-TailH 79 NYS PDF

Iris pseudacorus

Yellow IrisH 76 NYS PDF

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott).

Mexican Summer-Cypress, Burning BushM 68.75 NYS PDF

Lepidium latifolium L.

Broadleaved Pepperweed, PeppergrassH 79.38 NYS PDF

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.

Shrub Lespedeza, Bicolor Lespdeza, Shrubby Bush CloverM 63.33 NYS PDF

Lespedeza cuneata

Chinese Lespedeza, Chinese BushcloverH 74.44 NYS PDF

Ligustrum amurense Caar.

Amur PrivetNA 0 NYS PDF

Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zuccarini

Border PrivetH 76.67 NYS PDF

Ligustrum ovalifolium

California PrivetL 44.83 NYS PDF

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese PrivetNA 0 NYS PDF

Ligustrum vulgare

European PrivetM 67.82 NYS PDF

Lobelia chinensis Lour.

Chinese LobeliaL 36.99 NYS PDF

Lonicera japonica Thunberg

Japanese HoneysuckleVH 83.51 NYS PDF

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.

Amur HoneysuckleVH 84.44 NYS PDF

Lonicera morrowii LOMO2, L. tatarica LOTA, L. xbella LOBE

Morrow’s Honeysuckle, Tartarian Honeysuckle, Fly HoneysuckleVH 85.54 NYS PDF

Lonicera xylosteum

European Fly HoneysuckleU 0 NYS PDF

Lotus corniculatus L.

Bird’s-Foot TrefoilM 59 NYS PDF

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz

Uruguayan Primrose-WillowVH 88.3 NYS PDF

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven ssp. glabrescens (Kuntze) Raven

Floating Primrose-WillowVH 89.36 NYS PDF

Lysimachia clethroides Duby Planchon

Goose-Neck LoosestrifeNA 0 NYS PDF

Lysimachia nummularia

Creeping Jenny, MoneywortM 64.29 NYS PDF

Lysimachia punctata L.

Spotted LoosestrifeM 57.14 NYS PDF

Lysimachia vulgaris

Garden Loosestrife, Garden Yellow LoostrifeH 72.73 NYS PDF

Lythrum salicaria L.

Purple LoosestrifeVH 91 NYS PDF

Marsilea quadrifolia

European Water-FernU 0 NYS PDF

Microstegium vimineum

Japanese Stiltgrass, Eulalia, Nepalese BrowntopVH 85 NYS PDF

Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack.

Japanese Silver GrassNA 0 NYS PDF

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.

Chinese Silvergrass, EulaliaH 77.78 NYS PDF

Morus alba

White MulberryM 68.67 NYS PDF

Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.

Marsh Dewflower, Wart-Removing HerbH 78.16 NYS PDF

Myosotis scorpioides L.

True Forget-Me-NotU 0 NYS PDF

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vellozo) Verdcourt

Parrot-FeatherH 76.67 NYS PDF

Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (including M. heterophyllum X M. pinnatum)

Broadleaf Water-MilfoilVH 93.62 NYS PDF

Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Eurasian Water-MilfoilVH 100 NYS PDF

Najas minor All.

Brittle Water NymphM 64.84 NYS PDF

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. ex Ait. (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Linnaeus) Hayek, Sched.

WatercressM 65.75 NYS PDF

Nelumbo nucifera

Sacred LotusM 64.38 NYS PDF

Nymphoides peltata

Yellow Floating HeartH 74.47 NYS PDF

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. subsp. undulatifolius (Ard.) U. Scholz

Wavyleaf Basketgrass, Bristle BasketgrassH 70.27 NYS PDF

Paulownia tomentosa

Princess-TreeM 51.11 NYS PDF

Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa (Polygonum caespitosum var. longiseta)

Creeping SmartweedM 60.27 NYS PDF

Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H. Gross (=Polygonum nepalense Meisn.)

Nepal SmartweedU 0 NYS PDF

Persicaria perfoliata

Mile-a-Minute Weed, Mile-a-Minute VineVH 91.11 NYS PDF

Phalaris arundinacea

Reed CanarygrassH 77.78 NYS PDF

Phellodendron amurense

Amur CorktreeH 74 NYS PDF

Phleum pratense

TimothyM 63.75 NYS PDF

Phragmites australis ssp. Australis

Common ReedVH 92 NYS PDF

Phyllostachys aureosulcata McClure and P. aurea Carrière ex A. Rivière and C. Rivière)

Yellow Groove Bamboo [grove is a misspelling] and Golden BambooNA 0 NYS PDF

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Breitenbach

Crowdipper, Green DragonL 39.73 NYS PDF

Pinus thunbergii

Japanese Black PineM 58.62 NYS PDF

Pistia stratiotes L.

Water LettuceNA 0 NYS PDF

Poa bulbosa L.

Bulbous BluegrassL 48.75 NYS PDF

Poa compressa L.

Canada BluegrassM 68.75 NYS PDF

Poa pratensis L.

Kentucky BluegrassM 67.78 NYS PDF

Populus alba

White PoplarM 55.95 NYS PDF

Potamogeton crispus L.

Curly PondweedH 79.79 NYS PDF

Prunus avium L.

Sweet CherryM 55 NYS PDF

Prunus cerasus L.

Sour CherryM 55 NYS PDF

Prunus padus L.

European Bird CherryM 51.11 NYS PDF

Pseudosasa japonica (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai

Arrow BambooNA 55.17 NYS PDF

Pueraria montana

KudzuVH 84.44 NYS PDF

Pyrus calleryana

Callery PearM 65.06 NYS PDF

Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser Celandine, Fig ButtercupVH 85.56 NYS PDF

Ranunculus repens L.

Creeping Butter-CupM 63.22 NYS PDF

Rhamnus cathartica

Common BuckthornVH 81 NYS PDF

Rhodotypos scandens

JetbeadM 69.33 NYS PDF

Robinia hispida L. (var. fertilis & hispida)

Bristly Locust, Mossy Locust, Rose AcaciaL 48.28 NYS PDF

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black LocustVH 81.11 NYS PDF

Rorippa amphibia L. Besser (Nasturtium amphibium L. W.T. Ait.)

Great Yellowcress, Water YellowcressU 0 NYS PDF

Rosa multiflora

Multiflora RoseVH 89 NYS PDF

Rosa rugosa

Rugosa Rose, Japanese Rose, Beach RoseM 63.44 NYS PDF

Rubus bifrons Vest. ex Tratt. (R. armeniacus Focke; R. discolor Weihe & Nees, R. fruticosus exclusive of its type as per USDA

Himalayan BlackberryM 56.67 NYS PDF

Rubus laciniatus

Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry, Evergreen BlackberryM 63.22 NYS PDF

Rubus phoenicolasius

WineberryVH 85.56 NYS PDF

Rumex acetosella

Sheep SorrelM 66.25 NYS PDF

Salix atrocinerea/cinerea

Large Gray Willow, European Gray Willow, Gray Florist’s WillowVH 84.44 NYS PDF

Salvinia molesta

Water FernNA 0 NYS PDF

Saponaria officinalis L.

Bouncing-Bet, Bouncing Betty, SoapwortM 52.5 NYS PDF

Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub (S. arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dum. nom. illeg.; Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ; F. elatior L. nom. rej.; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire)

Tall Fescue, Kentucky Fescue, Reed Fescue, Coarse Fescue, Alta FescueM 65 NYS PDF

Senecio jacobaea L.

Tansy-RagwortM 60 NYS PDF

Silphium perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum

Cup PlantH 77.78 NYS PDF

Solanum dulcamara L. var. dulcamara

Trailing Nightshade, Bittersweet Nightshade, Climbing NightshadeM 50.52 NYS PDF

Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Braun

False SpiraeaU 0 NYS PDF

Spiraea japonica

Japanese SpiraeaM 62.34 NYS PDF

Stratiotes aloides L.

Water SoldiersNA 0 NYS PDF

Syringa reticulata (Blume) H.Hara[(=S. amurensis (Rupr.) Rupr.; including S. pekinensis Rupr.]

Japanese Tree LilacU 0 NYS PDF

Tanacetum vulgare L.

Common TansyM 52.38 NYS PDF

Trapa natans L.

Water Chestnut, Water CaltropVH 82 NYS PDF

Tussilago farfara L.

ColtsfootM 57.5 NYS PDF

Ulmus pumila L.

Siberian ElmM 52.5 NYS PDF

Valeriana officinalis

Common ValerianM 62.16 NYS PDF

Verbena bonariensis L. var. bonariensis

Purpletop VervainNA 0 NYS PDF

Veronica beccabunga L.

European SpeedwellM 61.84 NYS PDF

Veronica officinalis L.

Common Speedwell, Gypsy-WeedM 51.95 NYS PDF

Viburnum dilatatum Thunb.

Linden ArrowwoodM 57.14 NYS PDF

Viburnum lantana L.

Wayfaring-TreeM 53.75 NYS PDF

Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus

European Cranberry Bush, Guelder RoseM 67.09 NYS PDF

Viburnum setigerum

Tea ViburnumL 41.25 NYS PDF

Viburnum sieboldii

Siebold’s Arrow-Wood, Siebold’s ViburnumM 62.5 NYS PDF

Vicia cracca L. s.l. (includes: Vicia cracca L. subsp. cracca, V. cracca subsp tenuifolia (Roth) Gaudin, V. villosa subsp pseudocracca (Bertol.) Ball, V. villosa var. varia (Host) Corb., V. villosa Roth var. villosa)

Bird Vetch, Cow Vetch, Winter Vetch, Bramble Vetch, Tufted Vetch, Shaggy VetchM 54.44 NYS PDF

Vinca minor

Common PeriwinkleM 57.14 NYS PDF

Vitex rotundifolia L.F.

Roundleaf Chastetree, Beach Vitex, Chasteberry, Monk’s PepperH 73 NYS PDF

Wisteria sinensis/W. floribunda

Chinese Wisteria/Japanese WisteriaM 56.7 NYS PDF